writing

托福写作

综合写作(最终考的是听力)

  • 三分钟阅读

  • 1+3

  • 听力是对阅读的反驳

  • writing 150~225(150词以上)

    (Three points from the reading and listening)

三部分

三分钟阅读,找到1+3,理解推理过程(reasoning),适当的去推测其中的逻辑问题

1:就是主题、主旨(通常第一段的第一句是主旨)

3:就是三个点,比如三个好处(坏处)、三个方案、三种理论、三种问题、三个原因解释

两分钟听力,也是1+3,是对阅读的反驳,听力主题句借鉴听力的第一段

1:阅读的说法不靠谱

3:分别对三个点进行反驳(对其进行反驳,再原因解释即细节)

writing

150-225(200词以上)

  • 重点把逻辑讲清楚
  • 听力为主,阅读为辅
  • 阅读改写
  • 听力的逻辑排列(多用连接词)

writing结构

开头段:第一句话总结阅读主题,第二句话表明听力和阅读关系(contradict 、refute)加上听力主题

主体段:阅读主题+概括细节(一句话) 听力主题+细节(important)

独立写作

目标

30分钟,300词以上,450词作为目标,语言质量为目标,强调逻辑性,体现的是论证的充分性。

结构和题型

1.agree or disagree (一个观点,问同不同意)

一边倒的结构

开头

​ 理由一

​ 理由二

​ 理由三

​ 结尾

哪个好写写哪个

思路思考方式:主题分析法(想这个事情与什么相关)

例如:大学免费教育是否好

​ 学生,家长,学校,政府,社会

​ 工作,生活,学习

​ Disagree:

  1. First of all,this policy will make student lose the motivation of study。(This policy will deprive some students of their motivation to study hard) to maintain enthusiasm about something

  2. Furthermore,free university education is likely to render the college of education worse。

导致 result in ||contribute to ||give rise to ||induce

  1. Finally,this will put enormous financial pressure on the government

2.二选一(prefer)

A比B更好(一定要去比较)

例如:Eating at home versus eating outside

  1. Healthier or wholesome

  2. More economical

  3. Contribute more to improving family bonds

3.三选一(对比也很重要)

Contribute most to an enjoyable vacation

Good food,good location,good friends to travel with

最后所有的点都落在enjoyable上面

思路思考方式:正反思考

分词开头

1.Traveling with friends,we can have a safer trip.

2.Aside from greater safety,going on a trip with friends

(ease,relive,alleviate,ameliorate)

Loneliness

递进的衔接词

Also,even worse ,more importantly

213的强度

审题

1.利弊分析还是现象解释

2.对比(讲更好的,挑缺点)more than,while ,by contrast,compare with,unlike,nevertheless,on the other hand(对立的两面,非并列,单独使用表示对比)

3.题干中有两部分,要分别讨论(因果关系)

例如:Teachers should give students more group assignment, because they can study efficiently。

Agree: Doing group assignments, students can work in an efficient way.

Divide, brainstorm, assistance, competition

Aside from the high learning efficiency , completing group tasks can bring additional benefit.

Collaboration(合作),teamwork spirit,cultivate,acquire more knowledge,

思路思考方式:内容和形式

4.绝对词(举反例即可)

Only no every or any

Best most efficiency

例如:all university students should learn history,regardless what profession you are

\1. no use

\2. be intrigued in

例如:There is no reason for people to be impolite.

Be treat in

Good purpose

例如:increasing the price of oil,to solve traffic congestion

Public transportation

Congestion charge

对best way的反驳

效果差

不可行

副作用

更好的+比较

5.明确题目探讨的主题以及限定范围


写法

1.开头段(50~70词)

话题引入(简单引入,点到为止)

背景/现象

写现象,根据关键词(key word/topic 普遍趋势)
但是要注意度

观点

from my perspective/I think that /from my point of view
给出回答
改写

引起下文

since/because/as/for/in that
due to/considering

具体题目的例子

  1. all the student should wear uniforms?
    tips:
    更改主语(用动名词作主语)
    写不完就直接省掉背景
  • 方便管理(dressing code)
  • 防止攀比
  • 省钱

Wearing uniform is a compulsory rule in many schools,but a host of students show great reluctance to this rule.
This rule, for my perspective, is justified and rewarding, in that it can benefit students financially,academically.

2.Spending time alone is the best way to reduce stress?
现象:压力大->way->alone
Individuals in modern society are generally comforted with considerable pressure from work life or study,and various methods have been adopted to tackle this problem. One possible solution is to stay by oneself for some time, but I do not think it is the optimal approach to reliving stress , considering its ineffectiveness and better alternative methods.

3.Rather than help their children do schoolwork, parents should encourage their children do their homework independently?

Homework is necessary for a normal student, but a host of students are confronted with considerable homework or hard homework. When they can not finish their homework, they tend to ask their parents for help. Helping children do their homework,from my perspective, is not beneficial to students. So,encouraging their children do their homework independently is a better way in that it can develop their independence to face difficulties in the future.
不支持的作为现象,支持的作为观点

2.主体段(根据思路选结构)

主题句(关键是因果关系,不能模棱两可) 逻辑链要非常完整

  • 主题+分论点
  • 直接回答观点句
  • 抽象概括
  • 主题的改写(同义词替换+代词指代)
  • 衔接过度
  • 一致性

在主题句这里要善用分词开头的句子,能写分词就写分词

论证

  • 原因(A->B->C,一定要充分解释)
  • 对比(善用if)反证法
  • 多角度

论证就是抽象化的过程,如果感觉论证有问题就写例子来补充

一个多角度的例子:group assignment efficiency
  • 分工合作
  • leadership
  • 共同思考和商讨
  • learn from others

例子(前面为纲+例子填充)

  • 例子的目的(一致性)
  • 例子类型:个人,新闻or故事,常识性的例子
  • 例子是对主题论证部分具体化的过程

    具体化表现在细节的具体,如出现具体的数字,人名,地名。并对他们的表现进行描述。千万不要使用看起来就很泛化的例子(比如某些人怎么怎么样这种)。另外一点是如果正面例子不好用就使用反面例子(反例在某些情况下更具有说服力)

用法方面:例子中用主从句结构,主句来讲要点,从句讲讲背景就好了。

例子

上大学->交朋友->朋友帮助->事业进步
若要举例的话就是,具体到哪个大学,是哪几个叫什么名字的朋友,在哪个方面,给了我很大的帮助,帮我在哪一个公司取得了怎样的职位进步或者薪水加成。

段落总结

用过去的例子来强调、点题

1.使用虚拟语气,例子:

  • If my brother had been taken care of by my parents, he would be better.
  • Had the leader ignored the employee’s advice, the company would have suffered a great lose.

2.使用强调句,例子:

  • It was the employee’s advice that helped the company avoid suffering from a great lose.
    说理之后进行总结
    重述观点句和分论点即可(就是差不多改改再写一下)

3.结尾段

有没有总结观点,有没有总结分论点,有没有改写

  • 改写(同义替换)同义词,词性,换主语
  • 总结(稍微分析一下,具体一点点)

在这里使用倒装句,使用not only, but also或者hardly
例子:
,because not only does this help younger children grow healthily, but also strength their relationship with their parents.
Hardly could I survive without him.


主体段有两种结构

一是以例子主导,二是以说理为主导

例子

主题句
论证
例子
段落总结

说理

主题句
论证
论证

段落总结

全文结构

开头
主体段1
主体段2
结尾段

语法相关

1)虚拟语气

用在过去的例子的最后 用来表示强调、点题->主题和分论点

If had done sth, would have done /would do

省略倒装:去掉if,提前had

eg. If he had money, he would buy a car.

用在一般性例子的最后

If did/were, would/should/could/might do

eg. If he studied harder, he might pass the exam.

If I were you, I would beat him.

  1. 强调句

it is/was +强调部分(主语或者状语)+that 剩余部分

  1. 倒装句
  • not only, but also

not only does this make…., but also renders sb do sth 一定要注意第二个s

  • hardly could/can sb do sth ; seldom, rarely 几乎不

by no means should sb do sth 绝不

  • so +adj/adv + 半倒装 that 完整句子 表示因果 如此 以至于

eg: some teachers’ teaching methods are so limited that they cannot suit every
student.

eg: So limited are some teachers’ methods that ..

eg: So meticulous was our Chinese teacher that every mistake in our assignment
could be spotted and corrected.

  • only+ 状语

only by doing sth/when …can we/半倒装

eg: Only when we find out the causes of the problem can it be solved more
effectively.

  • 主语 不及物动词 with n

—– with sth + 动词+ 主语

eg: with great power comes great responsibility.

eg: with increasing numbers of vehicles comes/emerges serious traffic congestion
in many cities.

  • as = though 倒装

eg: Child as he is, he knows a lot.

eg: Reliable as this theory seems, it is vulnerable to criticism.

eg: Important as homework is to students, too much homework will put
considerable pressure on them.

  1. 分词做状语

doing/ done, ….主语 谓语

分词表示 原因 条件

主语 谓语 ,doing/thus doing 表示结果= , which

写作练习

Physical exercise is important to older people than to younger people.

开头段

从观点到背景

身体健康

年轻人健康状况不如老年人 现象加原因

  • 时间少
  • 吃的不好

年轻人需要锻炼来保持健康

老年人有更多的保持健康的方式

心理健康

年轻人心理方面不健康 原因+表现

年轻人通过锻炼来释放压力,交朋友(减少孤独)

老年人心理健康,没有很多忧愁

练习

Increasing teachers’ salaries is the best way to improve the qualification of education。

Not effective

Even worse,a decline in the qualification of education

Better alternative approaches training,better teachers

Reading newspapers and magazines is the best way to learn a about a foreign country.

X comprehensive

Be misled

Biased prejudice

Subjective

Control by the government

Exaggerate

Better alternative method

Spending time alone is the best way to reduce stress

Solving environmental problems is the best way to improve healthy problems.

For area where healthy are mainly attribute to environmental pollution, this method would be the optimal choice.

However ,this approach is not the most suitable in all places in that there are diversity reasons in different areas.

Medical conditions,

独立写作注意事项

  1. 需要比较的题目一定要时时进行比较,做到系统级的比较

​ 观点句、主题句、论证、例子、结尾总结 都需要比较

  1. 注意不要使用套路

  2. 文章中尽量使用第一、三人称,不要使用第二人称,比如a worker, a person, individuals ,people ,we

  3. 在考虑解决问题的时候,考虑贡献更大!依赖性更大!

  4. 在考虑某一方法更好的时候,解决痛点(即某个方法的不足,要么解决它,要么给出它不是不足的理由)!

  5. 主题的重复问题怎么改?

    • 同义替换 doing an intriguing and demanding job
    • 代词和指代 doing jobs full of interest and challenges
    • 更改词性 doing such jobs
  6. 主体段的问题?

    • 注意比较
    • 注意过渡 can also
    • 词汇替换
  7. 时间安排

    • 3min 思路–观点–分论点–论述
    • 2~3min 开头段
    • 10~12min 第一个主体段
    • 10min 第二个主体段+结尾段
    • 1~2min 检查
  8. 一直紧扣题目的方法

    • 写开头的观点句–要看题目 知道回应什么问题
    • 写分论点主题句的时候– 要看观点句 保证回答了观点句
    • 写论证的时候– 要看本段的主题句 保持一致(关键词的重复)
    • 写例子的时候– 要看主题句和论述 —-按照要点来写例子
    • 写段落总结的时候– 要看段落主题句
  9. 总体总结

  10. 复习并熟练方法论

  11. 进一步总结段落写法与相关问题

  12. 写:计时 时间安排

  13. 改:找出问题

  14. 词汇使用 : 能用在写作中;使用 搭配 2-3 搭配词组 ;3秒替换 换掉


writing
http://example.com/2019/10/23/2019-10-23-托福写作/
Author
Neko kiku
Posted on
October 23, 2019
Licensed under